PMBOK – Integration Management

 

Knowledge Areas Major Processes Primary Inputs Tools & Techniques Primary Outputs
         
INTEGRATION
     
Develop Project Charter Developing the project charter that formally authorizes a project or a project phase 1. Contract (when applicable)2. Project Statement of Work3. Enterprise environmental factors

4. Organizational Process Assets

 

1. Project Selection Methods2. Project Management     Methodology (PMM)3. Project Management                                  Information system(PMIS)

4. Expert Judgment

1. Project Chapter
Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement Developing Preliminary Project Scope Statement that provides high level scope narrative. 1. Project Charter2. Project Statement of Work3. Enterprise Environmental Factors

4. Organizational Process Assets

1. PMM2. PMIS3. Expert Judgment 1. Preliminary project Scope Statement
Develop Project Management Plan Documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans into a project management plan. 1. Preliminary project Scope Statement2. Project Management Processes3. Enterprise Environmental Factors

4. Organizational Process Assets

1. PMM2. PMIS3. Expert Judgment 1. Project Management Plan
Direct and Manage Project Execution Executing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project’s requirements defined in the project scope statement. 1. Project Management Plan2. Approved Corrective actions3. Approved Preventive Actions

4. Approved Change Requests

5. Approved defect repair

6. Validated defect Repair

7. Administrative Closure Procedure

1. PMM2. PMIS 1. Deliverables2. Requested Changes3. Work Performance Information

4. Implemented corrective actions

5. Implemented Preventive actions

6. Implemented Change Requests

7. Implemented defect repair

 

Monitor and Control Project Work Monitoring and Controlling the processes used to initiate, plan, execute, and close a project to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan 1. Project Management Plan2. Work Performance Information3. Rejected Change Requests 1. PMM2. PMIS3. Earned Value Technique

4. Expert Judgment

1. Recommended corrective actions2. Recommended Preventive actions3. Recommended Defect Repair

4. Forecasts

5. Requested Changes

 

Integrated Change Control Reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and controlling changes to the deliverables and organizational process assets. 1. Project Management Plan2. Deliverables3. Work Performance Information

4. Requested Changes

5. Recommended corrective actions

6. Recommended Preventive actions

7. Recommended Defect Repair

 

 

1. PMM2. PMIS3. Expert Judgment 1.Project Management Plan(updates)2. Project Scope Statement (updates)3. Deliverables

4. Approved corrective actions

5. Approved corrective actions

6. Approved Change Requests

7. Rejected Change Requests

8. Approved Defect Repair

9. Validated Defect Repair

 

Close Project Finalizing all activities across all of the project management process groups to formally close the project or a project phase. 1. Project Management Plan2. Contract Documentation3. Deliverables

4. Work Performance Information

5. Enterprise environmental factors

6. Organizational Process Assets

 

1. PMM2. PMIS3. Expert Judgment 1. Administrative closure Procedure2. Contract closure Procedure3. Final Product, Service or result

4. Organizational Process Assets (updates)

 

 

Integration Management – Unification, consolidation, articulation and interactive actions that are crucial to project completion. Integration is about making choices, about where to concentrate resources and effort. It also involves making tradeoffs among competing objectives and alternatives. Integration is primarily concerned with effectively integrating the processes among the Project Management Process Groups.

Integration could be said to cover the high level work a PM needs to do. The other knowledge areas in this book are detailed work.

Reasons to start projects – Problems, market, opportunity, business requirements, customer request, technological advance, legal requirement, social need.

A project manager should be always be assigned prior to the start of planning and preferably while the project charter is being developed.

It is a job of project manager to put all the pieces of the project together into one cohesive whole that gets the project done faster, cheaper and with fewer resources while meeting the project objectives.

 

  1. Develop Project Charter – Developing the project charter that authorizes a project.
  2. Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement – Developing PPSS provides detailed scope description
  3. Develop Project Management Plan – Developing all subsidiary plans into a project management plan.
  4. Direct and Manage Project Execution – Accomplish the work defined in the project plan to achieve the project’s scope.
  5. Monitor and Control Project Work – Monitoring and controlling the process used to Initiate, Plan, Execute and Close a project to fulfill the objectives defined in the project management plan.
  6. Integrated Change Control – Review, approve and control all the changes/ change requests.
  7. Close Project – Closing all the activities across all the process groups to close the project.

 

Project Charter  – 1. Authorizes a project 2. Gives Project Manager Authority 3. Issued by initiator or sponsor external to project organization who has the authority to fund. 4. It is broad enough that it does not have to change as the project changes.

 

Project Charter Contain:

1. Requirements, wants and expectations

2. Business Needs

3. Project purpose or justification

4. Assigned PM and authority level

5. Stakeholder influences

6. Functional organization participation

7. Assumptions & Constraints

8. Business case and return on investment

9. Summary Budget

 

Inputs

 

  1. Contract (if applicable)
  2. SOW  is a narrative description of products or services to be supplied by the project and indicates: Business need, Product scope description, strategic plan. Created by customer/sponsor
  3. Project doesn’t exist without Project Charter
  4. Environmental Process Assets - Company Culture & Structure, Government or industry standards, infrastructure, existing human resources, personal administration (Hire, Fire, performance), work authorization, Market place condition, Stake holder risk tolerance, Commercial database, PMIS
  5. Organizational Process Assets – Standards, Policies, Standard Product and Project Life Cycles, Quality policies & procedure, performance measurement criteria, Templates, Communication requirements, Project Closure Guidelines, Risk Control procedure, Issue and Defect Management Procedure, Change Control Procedure, Procedure for Approving & issuing work authorization. It also include Process Measurement database, project files, Historical information & Lessons learned, Configuration management database, financial database containing labor hours, costs & budgets.

 

 

 

 

Tools and Techniques

 

PMIS

Expert Judgement

 

Project Selection Methods Two categories used are  Benefit Measurement  (comparative approach) and Constrained Optimization (mathematical approach).

  1. Benefit Measurement Methods (Comparative Approach)
  1. Scoring Models
  2. Benefit Contributions
  3. Murder board – Panel of people who try to shoot down a new project idea.
  4. Peer Review
  5. Economic Models

1. Benefit Cost Ratio 2. Cash Flow 3.Internal Return Rate 4. Preset Value (PV) and net present value (NPV) 5.Opportunity Cost 6.Discounted Cash Flow 7. Return on Investment

  1. Constrained Optimization Methods (Mathematical Models)
  1. Linear 2. Nonlinear 3. Dynamic 4. Integer 5. Multiple Objective Programming

 

Preliminary Project Scope Statement Contain:

 

1. Project & Product Objectives 2. Requirements & Characteristics 3.Acceptance Criteria 4.Boundaries 5.Requirements and Deliverables 6.Constaints 7.Assumptions 8.Project Organization 9.Initial Defined Risks 10.Schedule Milestone 11.Initial WBS 12.Order of Magnitude Cost Estimate 13. Configuration Management Requirements 14 approval requirements

 

It is developed based on information from the sponsor or initiator. In general is contains all management plan and performance measurement baselines. It should be BARF (bought into, approved, realistic, formal)

 

Project Management Plan – It defines how project is executed, monitored and controlled and Closed. PMP can be either summary level or detailed and can be composed of one or more subsidiary plans and other components. It contains following management plans

1. Scope 2.Schedule 3.Cost 4.Quality 5.Risk 6.Communication 7.Procurement 8.Schedule Baseline 9.Process improvement Plan 10.Staffing 11.Mile Stone list 12. Resource Calendar 13.Cost Baseline 14.Quality Baseline 15.Risk Register 16 Contract 17 Risk Response 18 Change Control

 

Configuration Management (Tool) – It is a sub system of overall project management information system. It is a means of monitoring and controlling emerging project scope against the scope baseline; its purpose is to control change throughout the project. It is any documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to audit the items and system to verify conformance requirements. It documents the physical characteristics of formal project documents and steps required to control changes to them (e.g. would be used by a customer who wishes to expand the project scope after the performance measurement baseline has been established). When more than one individual has sign a Charter, you have to be concerned with competing needs and requirements impacting your efforts on configuration management.

It is designed in the planning process group and used in the ICC process

Configuration Management Activities – 1.Configuration Identification 2.Configuration Status Accounting 3.Configuration Verification and auditing

Change Control Board – A group of stakeholders responsible for reviewing, approving and rejecting the changes to the project.

Change Control System – It is a collection of formal documented procedures that define how project deliverables and documentation are controlled, changed and approved. It is a subsystem of configuration management. It must also include procedures to handle changes that may be approved without prior review (e.g. result of an emergency). CMS includes Change Control System.

 

Integrated Change Control – It is performed from project inception thru completion. Here all recommendations for changes, CA, PA and defect repairs are evaluated and either approved or rejected. It includes:

  1. Identifying that a change needs to occur or has occurred
  2. Make sure only approved changes are implemented
  3. Reviewing and approving requested changes
  4. Managing approved changes as and when they occur and regulating them
  5. Maintain integrity of baseline
  6. Review and approve all recommended corrective and preventive actions
  7. Controlling and updating scope, cost, budget, schedule and quality
  8. Documenting impact of requested changes
  9. Validating defect repair

Changes – The best method to control changes on the project is to look for sources of change. The best method to deal with changes is to direct the changes to the Change Control Board. Changes to project charter from sponsor and other signatories.

Project Manager has authority to approve some change requests. He is given authority to approve changes in emergency situations.

 

Result of Monitoring & Control are recommended changes to the project as well as recommended corrective actions, preventive actions and defect repairs.

Work Authorization System: system for authorizing the work-notifying team members or contractors that they may begin work on a project work package.

Work performance Information: includes schedule progress, deliverables completion status, schedule, extend to which quality standards are met, costs authorized and incurred, estimates to complete, % complete, LLs, Resource utilization details. Primarily status reports on work progress.

Baselines can be for scope, schedule, cost, quality, resource, technical performance baselines. Scope baseline includes the WBS, Project scope statement and WBS dictionary. Projects that deviate far from their baselines should have their risk management process reviewed. Should be changed for all implemented changes. Sometimes, certain classification of changes gets automatic approval on a project and do not need Change Control Board approval.

 

Project Execution – Although the products, services or results of the project are frequently in the form of tangible deliverables such as building, road or software, intangible deliverables such as training is also provided.

Schedule Change Control System – can include the paper, systems and approvals for authorizing changes. The project manager is normally not the approval authority, and not all the changes approved

 

Organization Process Assets – Includes an index & location of project documentation

  • Formal Acceptance Documentation
  • Project Files
  • Closure Documents
  • Historical information

Corrective Actions:  are recommended in following processes

M & C project work, Scope verification, All control areas, Perform quality assurance (only area from executing process group), Manage project team, Performance reporting, Contract Administration.

Mostly in executing and M&C process groups. Recommended corrective actions result in the creation of change required which are approved or rejected in the ICC process and implemented in direct and manage project execution process.

Preventive action: deals with anticipated or possible deviation from the performance baselines.

Recommended PA are output of M&C project work, Perform quality control, Manage project team, RMC

Defect Repair:  another work for rework and is necessary when a component of the project work does not meet its specification. Discovered during Quality Management process and formed into change request during M&C, these changes are dealt in ICC.

They are output of M&C and perform quality control

Process for making changes: PM should Prevent Root cause of change

  1. Evaluate impact with triple constraint
  2. Create options
  3. Get internal buy in
  4. Get customer buy in

 

Close project:

 

Administrative Closure: happens ones to close the project or each phases of the project.

Contract Closure: happens to close each contract. Involves both product verification and administrative closure.

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